quarta-feira, 15 de setembro de 2010

Pesquisadores Usando a Abordagem PONTES / Researchers Using PONTES Approach


TITLE: Doctor in Music Education (UFBA)
JOB: Adjunct Professor of Music Education at the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil.

TITLE OF THESIS: The PONTES (Bridges) Approach in instrumental teaching: three case studies


The present research consists of three case studies. The aim of this research was to investigate how music instrument teachers develop pedagogical articulations in the music class aiming an effective teaching. In chapter two, after the “Introduction” (chapter one), it discusses the researches on instrumental teaching in the Occidental World and in Brazil. The research problem is defined, as well as the research methodology concept which enabled the development of this research. The third chapter presents some data and reflective analysis related to instrumental teaching. In chapter four, is presented "The PONTES Approach", by Alda Oliveira, the theoretical background for the present research on the instrumental music teachers´ pedagogic performances.  Data were collected whenever the music teachers articulated their teaching skills to the variables that surrounded the teaching/learning process aiming an effective music learning. Chapter five, six and seven are dedicated to the case studies. Each case is individually reported and is presented in a chapter which includes the lessons observed and the analysis of each lesson. Secondly, is presented the interview with each professor (flute, piano and guitar), and with each student. All these points are reviewed in a cross-site analysis. After the end of the cross-site analysis each student explains the pedagogical characteristics of his/her teacher. In chapter eight the author develops some educational thoughts that come from the cases studied. Results indicated that in the cases studied, several types and proposals of pedagogical articulations (bridges) were created by the professors for their students, taking into consideration the new knowledge and skills to be learned, and also the artistic, educational and social reality of that specific context. Characteristics of the PONTES Approach were found among these articulations: Positivity, Observation, Naturality, Pedagogical Technique, Expressivity and Sensibility. Finally, the Conclusion (chapter nine) brings the contributions of the present research to the field of musical instrument teaching as well as some implications for the education of music instrument teachers. Further research is suggested.
Keywords: Instrumental Music Education; Pedagogical Articulations; BRIDGES (PONTES


TITLE: Doctor in Music Education (UFBA)
JOB: Music Professor at Olga Mettig Graduate School (FAMMETIG)
E-MAIL: zuraida_ab@uol.com.br

TITLE OF THESIS: The AME approach: element of mediation between theory and practice in music teacher education

This doctoral research investigated the effect of a program for the preparation of teachers, aiming to demonstrate the development of creative articulations between practice and theory during the field experience of a student-teacher at the Music Education Course of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. Using a one subject case study, the research developed and applied an approach for the preparation of student-teachers with emphasis in music appreciation, entitled AME approach – Expressive Musical Appreciation –, taking the PONTES approach as a theoretical reference. Data was collected during the period of training carried out in a private elementary school in Salvador, BA. After cross-referencing the methods (autobiography, interview, report, questionnaires, memoranda, field diaries, video registers) and data sources (researcher, student-teacher, elementary students, school leaders, teachers of the examination board), concerning the twenty-two classroom scenes in the educational context, it became evident that the teaching orientation based on the AME approach, using music appreciation as an element of mediation between theory and practice, was efficient in guiding the student teacher field experience in the Music Education Course at UFBA. The results of the study showed that the student-teacher, in partnership with her advisor, created and developed efficient articulations with the educational context and with the students in classroom, extending qualitatively the pedagogical and musical possibilities of connections between theory and practice in music appreciation classes. The process of orientation contributed for the professional development of the student-teacher and her advisor, for the musical growth of the students and for the quality of the music classes in the context of the elementary school selected for this research. The data presented situations that involved interactions between the student teacher and employees, directors, pedagogical coordinators, students´ parents, teachers of the disciplines of the general curriculum, and articulations with the whole educational context. The student-teacher developed articulations related with the auditory experience, the elements of music and the verbal, corporal and visual expressions of the students, and with the situations of classroom, presenting visible signals of positivity, observation, naturalness, teaching techniques, expressivity and sensitivity. She also developed articulations with the students´ previous knowledge and experiences, as well as articulations with her proper verbal and writing narratives and teaching practice. It was detected a need for deeper experiences in the teacher-student´ connections with her previous knowledge in music performance. This process also enhanced her reflections about the teaching practice, according to the evidences of the field experience diaries, memoranda and the final report of activities. This research gives support to further applications of the AME approach, to further developments of PONTES approach in the specific area of music teacher education, and also for a qualified and systematic inclusion of music appreciation in the context of Brazilian Basic Education.

Keywords: music appreciation, pedagogical articulations, teacher education


TITLE: Master in Music Education (UFBA)
JOB: Music teacher at the Extension Courses for Babies at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil.  Scholarship grant by CAPES for Doctorate Course at UFBA under supervision by Dr. Alda Oliveira.

TITLE OF THESIS: The effect of a creative and critical-reflective-articulated program for the education of music teachers at the Music Education Course of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil.


Considering the growing number of communications´ possibilities in the contemporary world, and the recent studies in the area, the music initiation is starting earlier in the education process of human beings. Therefore, we need to develop and test new approaches of educational programs dedicated to the first years of the child development. As a consequence, these programs really need good trained teachers to contribute to a sound and efficient application of these programs.  Therefore, there are some urgent needs to accomplish: a) to consider the recommendations of Brazilian National Curriculum for Early Childhood Education; b) to develop and test special programs to educate music teachers for the music initiation for babies in Brazil; c) to develop programs which give emphasis to the development of articulatory and creative competences not only to use materials from the Brazilian culture but also to work with the multiple talents, interests and level of musical development of the children/families/communities.
Nowadays, the Brazilian education process of the music teacher needs to happen in a wide and effective form, contemplating not only the curricular planning skills but also the competencies to consider the relationships and articulations among parents, babies, teacher, context, cultural music repertoires and individual actors present in the music whole education process. Thus, this project focus on the education of music teacher, aiming a creative and critical-reflective-articulated program for the education of music teachers at the Music Education Course of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. This research will take the theoretical PONTES approach (Oliveira, 2001 to 2010) and other relevant sources and references for the design of the music program and for the teacher education curriculum to be tested.
The main objective of this research will be to investigate if a especially designed program (Music Program X) for teacher education, based on the PONTES Approach (Oliveira, 2001), can contribute to a creative, critical - reflective practice and articulated of music student-teacher education, at the music initiation classes for babies. Therefore, this study will address the following research question: "How a teacher training program based in the PONTES Approach can enhance the competencies of music teachers for a creative, critical - reflective and articulated practice with 0 to 2 years-old children?"
To answer this question, a qualitative-descriptive methodology will be used -(Phelps, 1993, pp. 225). In other words, it will be used the case study procedure to demonstrate how a new theoretical approach can be used in a particular situation (Phelps, 1993, pp. 251). We believe that "The case study as research strategy includes a method that covers all - dealing with the logic of planning, the techniques of data collection and analysis of specific approaches to the same" (Yin, 2005 pp. 33).
Thus, this study aims to contribute to the dissemination, discussion and improvement of teaching music to infants, to contribute to the scientific testing of a Brazilian theory on pedagogic articulations in music teaching, contributing for the development of the area of music education in Brazil.


Title: Master of Music Education (UFBA)
Job: Music Teacher (temporarily) at the Music School of the Federal University of Bahia.

Title of thesis: Creativity in music: the use of PONTES Approach for the development of articulation competences during the formative process of the music teacher.


This master degree study was developed at the Post-Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Bahia (PPGMUS-UFBA).  It answers the following research question: how did the music student-teacher, trained mostly under the PONTES Approach, applied his competencies to create pedagogic articulations (bridges) aiming a creative development of the students in music initiation classes?
The research used the case study procedure with one student teacher enrolled in the discipline Teaching Practice (MUS-185) at the Music Education under-graduate course - Music School of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The author was the supervising professor and has developed an orientation with an emphasis on the PONTES Approach by Alda Oliveira (2001).  Besides that, the researcher has given opportunities for reading and discussing texts by different authors, practical exercises for the development of the creative mind, has participated of the activities for the development of the class plans, has dedicated a special extra time to give him directions, to reflect about what he have done in class, to discuss about the praxis he was developing in the classroom, and finally, she has observed all the student teacher´s classes in order to collect data for the research study. The analysis of the data was done by crossing the information collected through annotations of the class diaries, audio and video recording materials, filled observations forms done by an independent observer, and a semi-structured interview with the student-teacher. Results indicated the efficacy of the PONTES Approach to promote student-teacher´s competencies for developing pedagogic articulations aiming the development of creativity with his 4 students, 8-11 year-old children. The the ability to develop articulations were progressively better with time and the student teacher has recognized the benefits of it for his development as a music teacher.  The children have demonstrated creative skills playing musical improvisations with different music instruments such as piano, electronic keyboard, drums, wooden instruments and the voice.  The positive results may be observed by the motivation and adequate attitudes of the children to explore the sounds and timbres of the music instruments during the creative moments in the classroom, by the constant demonstrations of aesthetic pleasure when doing and listening their own compositions, they showed to be concentrated during the creative activities, and with time, they have demonstrated to become more self-confident.  Students have also explored spontaneously the theoretical and practical elements of music even the ones that were not presented in the classroom, such as: simultaneous musical intervals at the Orff instruments and at the piano, and the use of finger difficult techniques during the creative performances.  The researcher has concluded that the PONTES Approach have been a decisive factor to the education of the student-teacher for the positive results of the study.  The author believes that a creative music teaching inspires creative and musical actions by the students because, in order to develop the articulation skills's of the teacher, it is important to develop several important skills, especially the creative ones.


TITLE: Master of Music Education (UFBA)
JOB: Mara Menezes is Professor of Music Education at the Federal University of Bahia - Brazil. She teaches classes in fundaments and methodology of music education and advises undergraduate students. Also she is coordinator of the Music Education course at the same university. As a Doctoral student, she is conducting a research in Assessment in Music Education that investigates evaluation practices of music teachers in schools from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (2010).
TITLE OF THESIS: Assessment in Music Education: a study of evaluation practices of music teachers in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil) with emphasis on problem-solving recommendations for the challenges reported by music teachers (2009).


This research aims to investigate the assessment practices of music teachers from the city of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil) that work in primary, high-school and college levels, as well as those working in NGOs and other social projects. Data were collected using a survey procedure and the use of semi-structured interviews. The study aimed to register, analyze and interpret the concepts of music teachers about evaluation and assessment in music. The study collected data relating teacher´s education and professional performance in the music class.  It also presents data about the relation of music to other disciplines of the school curriculum, planning meetings, types and practices of assessment used by teachers, criteria used for evaluating musical activities and an analysis of the literature produced about evaluation, and especially about evaluation in music.
Data is presented, discussed and interpreted using as a theoretical support for the design of a creative teacher training recommendation, the PONTES (brides) pedagogical approach (OLIVEIRA, 2001) and conceptions of assessment in music by Keith Swanwick (1987). The recommendations intend to identify possible solutions to the problems reported and challenges pointed by the research participants concerning the assessment in music. The study aims to  contribute to the education of music teachers, suggesting some evaluation criteria for different contexts of formal education.


TITLE: Master of Music Education (UFPB)
JOB: Professor of Music Education at the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), Brazil.  Doctoral student at the Post-Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Bahia. As a Doctoral student, she is conducting a research intended to study the PONTES approach, investigating practices of popular musicians on the Ganhadeiras of Itapuã Choir, an example of Music Education at an informal context. Harue has a scholarship grant by Brazilian Council for Research and Technological Development. Since 1999, Mrs. Tanaka is interested in the non-formal contexts of music, investigating groups of the popular culture (northeast of Brazil), focusing mostly on the way the popular musicians learn.

E-MAIL: hautanaka@ig.com.br

TITLE OF THESIS: Pedagogic Articulations on the Ganhadeiras of Itapuã Choir: a case study


This Doctorate research aimed at looking for pedagogic articulations into a group formed by children teenagers and women - Ganhadeiras of Itapuã, in Salvador (Bahia).  It is a qualitative investigation, treated methodologically as a case study.  Data will be collected on the educational and artistic performance by the nineteen Ganhadeiras of Itapuã, using primarily items from the PONTES approach (OLIVEIRA, 2001) such as: a) positivity; b) observation; c) naturalness; d) technique; e) expression; f) sensibility, as parameters for collection and analysis. The procedure used is the case study.
The analytic focus constitutes the pedagogic articulations developed by the feminine participants in their musical practices in their informal and native context.  The group is formed by nineteen ganhadeiras[1], twelve children/teenagers, eight musicians and five people that are part of the administration. Women and children are from different religions, such as Spiritualism, Catholicism and Candomblé.  The differences in relation to age or religion do not interfere in the musical symbiosis and choreography shown (CONDÁ[2], 2007). This group was created in March 2004, in the yards of Dona Cabocla (almost 90 years old) and of Dona Mariinha houses, both old residents of the neighborhood. This group is a result of the time when a group of people, motivated by the interest in revigorating the cultural identity of Itapuã started meeting weekly to exchange information on the old traditions of the place. Those encounters, marked by entertainment and musicality represented the beginning of the whole process which constitutes the group. There started to sing and dance the sambas-de-roda of the past, to explore the old and traditional stories and narratives.  All of this stimulated the idea of how to form a musical show, in which the people could sing and dance their own history.
The research has already collected data in the natural context of rehearsals, and right now, it is in the stage of choosing the scenes to be analyzed. It focuses on how the transmission of musical knowledge happens, how the pedagogic articulations occur in relation to all the variables at the educational/artistic context (musical repertoire, participants´ level of development, individual preferences, objectives aimed by the group and the individual participants, types of contents to be taught, previous cultural experiences and skills, and so on).  The main focus is on the analysis of the educational bridges created among the actors involved in the context.

[1]              The term used by this popular group refers to the person who trade in public fairs.  They used  the term ganhadeira and not the lexicon word - ganhadora. “The name [ganhadeiras] comes from the slaves that, in combination with their slave masters, were devoted for the sale of fish, fruits and woven, on the streets of the city. They intoned music to sell their products. This was just the tip of the iceberg of a series of artistic abilities”. (CASA VIA MAGIA: Centro de Desenvolvimento de Capacidades. Enciclopédias da Cidade. Vol.II – Itapuã. As Ganhadeiras de Itapuã. In: <http://www.viamagia.org/centro/proj_enciclopedias_itapua.php>. Access in: April 7th , 2008.
[2]              Diana Clara Condá, journalist and coordinator of press of the Institute of Ethnic Media, in Salvador (BA). 


TITLE: Master of Music Education (UFBA)
JOB: Professor of Music Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.  Doctoral student at the Post-Graduate Program in Music at the Federal Univ. of Bahia.
E-MAIL: meldias6@hotmail.com

TITLE OF THESIS (Master): The Construction of a Musical Theatre as an Interdisciplinary Artistic Practice in Music Education

The Musical is an artistic performance that congregates music, drama and dance and it is taken in this research as a teaching skill in the seeking of a liberating and amplifying education. It aims to develop the pupils, not only intellectually, but also psycho-socially, cognitively, musically and artistically. In order to reach systematic results on this subject, we carried the study through a descriptive qualitative research in the area of Musical Education, which articulates with the areas of Art-education, Psychology, Sociology and Philosophy. The study was carried through a participatory research, including the processes of construction, development and analysis of the results of the educational musical intitled Lamento Sertanejo with 14 pupils at the age of 14 to 20, in the context of the Youth Choir from the Music School of the Federal University of Bahia – UFBa in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The evaluation process was carried out through three complementary ways, such as self-evaluation of the pupils, the assessment of the teacher and the opinions of three specialists. The final outcomes resulted from a comparison between the findings at the beginning and at the end of the whole process.
These results indicated that the interdisciplinary practice of making a Musical, with articulatory educational intentions, contributed to developing the pupils in several aspects. The musical and artistic aspects were analyzed through the rhythmic, melodic and harmonic perceptions and performance, through the body expression, dramatic interpretation, liveliness on stage and body coordination, the psycho-social aspects, by the union of the group, the overcoming of emotional blockades and shyness and the increasing of their self-esteem. The learning of cognitive aspects were related with the creativity, memorization and the acquisition of cultural contents.

Keywords: Music education, Music Theater and Interdisciplinarity in the Arts.

TITLE OF THESIS (Doctorate): Collective Creation for autonomy in music education.

ABSTRACT: The musical theatre, as an artistic expression that combines music, drama and dance, has been a strong ally towards a freeing and comprehensive education, for it seeks to develop in students, not only their intellect, but also their psychosocial, musical and artistic aspects. This work is an ongoing research that has as its subject the Youth Choir of UFBA (Coral Juvenil da UFBa), an extension project at the Federal University of Bahia.  It´s goal is to identify potential methodological options for teaching and constructing musical theater works by promoting collective creations with the active participation of the students. For this research, a show was held with a group formed by 15 teenagers between 15 and 20 years of age, from different social classes and with diverse musical experiences. This work was developed based on a qualitative approach, through an action research, where the author herself was the mediator of the constructing process of the show, having as the pedagogical support, the PONTES approach, developed by Professor Alda Oliveira. Through this research, we seek to discover and document new education proposals that stimulate qualities of the students, such as autonomy, responsibility, creativity, initiative for group work and valuation of individualities by creating, presenting and analyzing pedagogically the musical theatre play produced.
Keywords: musical theatre; collective creation; PONTES approach; Youth Choir.



Título da tese de Doutorado: Articulações Pedagógicas em Música na Formação Integral: Um Estudo de Caso na Escola de Tempo Integral na Região Metropolitana de Belém, Estado do Pará

Local: Programa de Pós Graduação em Música da Escola de Música da Universidade Federal da Bahia como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Doutor em Música, Salvador, Bahia.

Área de Concentração: Educação Musical

Ano: 2015

Orientadora: Profa. Dra. Alda de Jesus Oliveira


A pesquisa investigou as articulações pedagógicas que foram desenvolvidas no ensino de música, em duas escolas de tempo integral (ETI) da rede pública de Belém do Pará, que fazem parte do projeto piloto da Secretaria de Educação do Estado desde 2012. Foram selecionadas duas ETI de nível fundamental do 1º e 2º ciclo, por critérios pré-estabelecidos entre as dez ETI do projeto piloto. Os estudos envolveram pesquisa sobre a escola de tempo integral fundamentados em Anísio Teixeira (1900-1982), em Darcy Ribeiro (1922-1997) e em Jaqueline Moll (2012) e a música na escola em Maura Penna (2002 a 2010),em Silvia Sobreira (2008),em Keith Swanwick (2003) e no contexto cotidiano em Jusamara Souza (2002 2004,2008). A metodologia de pesquisa qualitativa, um estudo de caso, teve como instrumentos aplicados: questionários semiestruturados, entrevistas e diários de campo registrados após observação não participativa em classe e em apresentações artísticas. A pesquisa tem como referencial teórico a Abordagem PONTES de Alda Oliveira (2001-2015) para analisar as atitudes e facilitações de quatro professores especialistas das duas ETI no processo de ensino e as articulações pedagógicas que envolvem o contexto do sistema para o ensino da música. Foi analisada a inserção de música (Lei 11.769̸ 2008), nos documentos nacionais e estaduais, nos conteúdos curriculares e Projeto Político e Pedagógico das ETI. Após triangulação dos dados obtidos através de registros documentais, das observações em campo e de respostas aos questionários e entrevistas, a análise dos dados indica como resultado que os docentes investigados desenvolveram articulações pedagógicas na sua maioria no nível intermediário, usando os critérios da abordagem PONTES como base de análise na sua maioria no nível intermediário em suas classes e atividades musicais. Apenas dois docentes utilizam articulações pedagógicas de forma interdisciplinar junto ao contexto sócio cultural Foram encontradas dificuldades relacionadas às práticas polivalentes em educação artística, aplicadas por professores especialistas, inconsistência de conteúdos de música nos projetos políticos-pedagógicos das escolas, carência de laboratórios adequados para atividades musicais, problemas na qualidade da alimentação escolar, insuficiência de equipamentos e instrumentos musicais e carência de ações afirmativas na formação de professores em termos qualitativos para uma política de melhoria, assim como problemas na qualificação do corpo técnico e gestão administrativa das ETI, para enfrentar esse novo modelo de escola proposto pelo sistema educacional. Recomendações são dadas, com o objetivo de contribuir para que os programas de música possam se tornar mais eficientes nas escolas de tempo integral do contexto local.

Palavras - chave: Educação Musical, Articulações pedagógicas em música, Escola de Tempo Integral, Música na educação básica.


Título da Tese de Doutorado: Ensaio Coral Centrado na Pessoa: Uma Abordagem Músico-Pedagógica Utilizada em Salvador e em Comunidades da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia.

Local: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Música da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia.

Área: de Educação Musical.

Orientador: Prof. Dr. José Maurício Brandão

Coorientadora: Prof.ª Dra. Alda de Jesus Oliveira

Ano: 2019



Esta pesquisa investigou os efeitos da aplicação da abordagem músico-pedagógica denominada nesse estudo de ECCP (Ensaio Coral Centrado na Pessoa) na atividade coral em Salvador e em três cidades da Região Metropolitana de Salvador: Candeias, Madre de Deus e São Francisco do Conde. Teve, como alvo, treze coros dirigidos pela pesquisadora (infantis a idosos), perfazendo um total de quinhentos e oitenta coralistas. O objetivo geral se concentrou em investigar os efeitos da aplicação da referida abordagem, as redes e configurações socioculturais de valorização do indivíduo, que promoveram o bem-estar e a melhoria da qualidade de vida dos coralistas. Foi investigada a prática coral quanto a sua implantação, obstáculos e progressos ocorridos, além dos processos metodológicos e articulatórios ocorridos na trajetória dos coros em questão. A Abordagem ECCP e seu corpo de atividades, foi estudada dentro da perspectiva do Estudo de Caso e da Abordagem Qualitativa Descritiva, considerando as faixas etárias e diversidades de ambientes. Identificou-se como esta abordagem contribuiu na construção de identidade cultural, valorização pessoal e reconhecimento do papel social dos envolvidos. Na busca por essa identificação, formulou-se a seguinte questão: como a abordagem ECCP contribuiu para a melhoria da qualidade de vida dos coralistas nos referidos contextos? O referencial teórico se concentrou nos estudos de Amato (2004; 2009), sobre o Canto Coral, bem como os de Brandão (1999) sobre a regência Coral e Oliveira (2014), sobre as articulações pedagógicas no ensino-aprendizagem por meio da abordagem PONTES. A análise dos resultados obtidos no questionário, nos depoimentos, nos vídeos dos ensaios dos corais e percepção dos coralistas mostrou que estes, reconhecem e legitimam os efeitos das atividades propostas pela referida abordagem, em mudanças individuais e sociais, relacionando-as com os objetivos desta investigação. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa sugerem uma influência positiva na aplicação da abordagem ECCP, referindo-se aos aspectos formativos musicais, bem como na saúde vocal, física e psíquica dos coralistas pesquisados. Outras declarações sinalizaram para a percepção de melhorias na consciência corporal (postura ao cantar – andar), mudanças emocionais (felicidade – motivação – euforia) e vocais (classificação vocal – vocalizes – além do uso adequado da voz dentre outros). A realização desta pesquisa confirma resultados positivos de outros estudos sobre assuntos relativos a bem-estar através da atividade coral e acrescenta conhecimento brasileiro, em especial com indivíduos da região do Estado da Bahia, onde poucos estudos foram realizados (canto coral nas três cidades investigadas). O estudo contribuiu para apresentar uma abordagem testada na prática, que pode despertar a consciência de educadores musicais regentes, ao representar e analisar uma situação comum, enfrentada por diversos profissionais que lidam com a natureza e a complexidade dessas atividades, abrindo portas para que esses educadores possam sintonizar seus problemas, avanços e conquistas com o assunto abordado nesta Tese.

Palavras Chave: Educação Musical. Canto Coral. Abordagem Músico-Pedagógica ECCP.

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